Duarte, M. H. L., Kaizer, M. C., Young, R. J., Rodrigues, M., & Souza-Lima, R. S. (2018). Mining noise affects loud call structures and emission patterns of wild black-fronted titi monkeys. Primates, 59 (1): 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-017-0629-4
Anthropogenic noise pollution is increasing and can constrain acoustic communication in animals. Our aim was to investigate if the acoustic parameters of loud calls and their diurnal pattern in the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons) are affected by noise produced by mining activity in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. We installed two passive acoustic monitoring devices to record sound 24 h/day, 7 days every 2 months, for a year; one unit was close to an opencast mine and the other 2.5 km away from it. Both sites presented similar habitat structures and were inhabited by groups of black-fronted titi monkeys. We quantified the noise at both sites by measuring the equivalent continuous sound level every 2 months for 1 year and quantified the emission of loud calls by titi monkeys through visual inspection of the recordings.
Seshadri, K.S. & Bickford, D.P. (2018). Faithful fathers and crooked cannibals: the adaptive significance of parental care in the bush frog Raorchestes chalazodes, Western Ghats, India. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobioloby, 72: 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-017-2420-3
Parental care has evolved many times in multiple taxa and, by definition, enhances offspring survivorship. Anurans exhibit a diverse array of parental care behaviors, but studies examining their adaptive significance in an evolutionary context are limited. The critically endangered bush frog, Raorchestes chalazodes (Rhacophoridae), only breeds inside hollow internodes of the endemic bamboo (Ochlandra travancorica) in the southern Western Ghats of India from June through October. From systematic surveys, we established that adult males are sole caregivers exhibiting egg attendance and egg guarding behavior. Predation was the main cause of egg mortality in the absence of an attending male; the majority of predation events were caused by conspecific males. The results highlight the role of regional and microhabitat-specific selection pressures such as strong seasonality, limited resources, and competition for oviposition sites..
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